Published 22 Dec 2021
What is the transport logistics?
Transport logistics includes all logistical processes related to the transport of any kind. This includes, for example, parts of both procurement and disposal logistics.
The physical transport of goods by road, air and water from one place to another and the associated tasks such as the provision of waybills, the calculation of the transport time and the planning of the use of means of transport, technology and labour are part of transport logistics.
Different sizes work together:
Administration, for example, personnel administration
Scheduling, for example, the control of transports
The operation, such as certain transportation techniques
In companies, transport logistics are often outsourced to external specialized service providers such as forwarding agents. These then cost-effectively provide the relevant expertise.
What are the goals of transport logistics?
The goal of transport logistics is to optimize transport of all kinds in these areas:
In addition, there should be as few costs as possible and the goods should be made available in the right quantity at the right time. An example of transport logistics is, for example, international container transport with all related logistical tasks such as the actual transport, but also, for example, customs clearance. Both the supply network and the distribution network are considered.
Tasks and goals of transport logistics
It includes the complete consideration of all processes in logistics that are necessary for transport. This includes the consideration of two so-called networks:
A supplier network describes which types of suppliers play a role in the delivery process. A distribution network describes the spatial structure in which the distribution processes are implemented.
What are the different modes of transport? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
1. Ground transportation:
Ground transport is divided into three subtypes (rail transport, truck transport, pipeline transport):
• Rail transport - the transport of passengers and goods with rail vehicles such as trains, trams, subways,...
The advantages of rail transport are:
high transport volume and throughput,
regardless of climatic conditions, season and day,
high regularity of transport,
low emissions (CO2 per piece + electric drive),
Covering long distances in a short time,
frequent lure exchange and thus less dependent on driving and rest times,
High-speed delivery of goods over long distances.
The disadvantages of rail transport are:
a limited number of providers,
high energy and material consumption of the transport,
no direct delivery to final sales,
Passenger traffic has priority over freight traffic,
Reloading / new locomotive, no uniform rail network in Europe / worldwide,
no high deadline security.
• Truck transport - the transport of goods and passengers on trackless roads with motor vehicles. These include buses, trucks, cars, armoured people carriers but not motorcycles or tractors.
The advantages of road transport:
enables freight to be delivered "door to door",
high flexibility and manoeuvrability,
Flexible in the choice of route,
sending small quantities,
Europe-wide / worldwide (with land connection) transport without stopping,
Choosing the right carrier.
The disadvantages of road traffic:
high transport costs over long distances,
long waiting times when unloading,
Driving and rest times for the driver,
Risk of cargo or vehicle theft.
• Pipeline transport - a structure designed to transport liquid and gaseous substances through pipes, as well as solid fuels in the form of a solution under the influence of the pressure difference in their cross-sections.
Advantages of pipeline transport:
low transport costs,
high load security,
low capital intensity,
little staff needed.
Disadvantages of pipeline transportation:
currently only transports special types of cargo such as gas, oil products, ...,
only one specific product (either oil or gas or air). No "mixed palette" possible,
It is only possible to transport large quantities.
2. Air traffic - includes aircraft, helicopters, etc. as well as the associated infrastructure such as airports, handling services, hangars, etc.
Advantages of air travel:
the highest speed when delivering the cargo,
highest load security,
the shortest transport routes.
Disadvantages of air travel:
high costs and tariffs,
high capital intensity, energy intensity and material consumption of the transport,
Depending on weather conditions,
Freight space must be registered,
Load carrier is not a Euro pallet, it must be repacked accordingly,
limited space/cargo space (belly freight or cargo),
limited geographic availability.
3. Water transport - Carries out the transport of passengers and goods through natural (rivers, lakes, seas, oceans) and artificial (reservoirs, canals, etc.) waterways.
• River transport (inland waterway) - transport on inland waterways such as rivers, canals, lakes.
Advantages of river traffic:
high load-bearing capacity in deep rivers and reservoirs,
low transport costs,
Travel times like bus schedules,
low capital intensity.
Disadvantages of river traffic:
limited traffic geography,
low delivery speed (depending on the uneven depth of the river, navigation conditions, etc.),
depending on the seasons,
Inadequate transport and cargo security.
• Maritime Transportation - handles the transportation of goods and passengers on the surface of seas, oceans, and adjacent waters.
Advantages of maritime transport:
the possibility of intercontinental transport,
high standardization, sea containers,
lower CO2 emissions per piece,
low transport costs over long distances.
Disadvantages of maritime transport:
limited traffic geography,
low delivery speed (depending on geographic, weather and navigation conditions),
low frequency of broadcasts,
strict requirements for securing and packaging goods,
low flexibility / resilience,
the need to create complex port infrastructure.