Published 01 Sep 2020
Transport Types And Intermodal Transportation
Logistics only ends with the delivery of a product to the point where it is needed. The transportation of the products between the place of production and the destination where they will be delivered basically takes place in five transportation modes. Among these modes of transportation, transportation of products with a single mode can only be carried out by road, while there are rare examples in which railways can be used as the only transportation mode. This situation necessitated the use of transportation modes together in order to deliver products to their destinations.
While more than 80% of global trade is transported by sea, the rate of airline transportation is increasing day by day. However, transports performed with these two modes cannot provide a door-to-door service in terms of logistics to reach the end. At this point where the transportation modes are lacking, the completion of the process with another transportation mode or modes is called mixed transportation or combined transportation as used in the sector. Transport models in which transport modes are used together are mainly examined under three headings. These are intermodal, combined and multimodal transport.
Differences Between The Transport Types
Although these concepts are often used interchangeably, they differ from each other with slight differences. For example, intermodal transportation is the delivery of goods loaded into a transport unit (container, semi-trailer, etc.) by different modes, after closing the door at the exit point, without opening it at all until arriving to destination by several transport modes. Full container load by sea is an example for this. Combined transport is defined by the United Nations as the transport of a non-energy-consuming transport mode carried by an energy-consuming transport mode. Loading the trailer on the Ro-Ro ship with its tractor or transporting it with the rail is within the scope of this definition. Multimodal transportation, unlike the others, is a transportation mode in which the loads can be transfered between transport units or vehicles. The transportation of scrap or mines in the transportation carried out by road-rail-road can be given as an example of this use.
The idea that is in the common ground of the above mentioned transportation models is; To increase the preference of rail and maritime transport by reducing the dependence on the road in international transport. As these two modes allow more loads to be transported at one time, they cause a decrease in transportation costs; It also enables the reduction of carbon emissions per unit kilogram of load carried to more acceptable levels. Nowadays, such different operations are frequently encountered in logistics systems due to the fact that the cargoes subject to global trade can be loaded into transportation units, especially into the container (containerization).